IEEE Standard Glossary of Computer Hardware Terminology

Glossary of Terms
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See: data structure diagram. ANSI 1 Everything that supports a system or the performance of a function. Myers Partitioning the input domain of a program into a finite number of classes [sets], to identify a minimal set of well selected test cases to represent these classes. There are two types of input equivalence classes, valid and invalid.

Chips which may be programmed by using a PROM programming device. Before programming each bit is set to the same logical state, either 1 or 0. Each bit location may be thought of as a small capacitor capable of storing an electrical charge. The logical state is established by charging, via an electrical current, all bits whose states are to be changed from the default state. EPROMs may be erased and reprogrammed because the electrical charge at the bit locations can be bled off [i.

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After programming, the IC's window must be covered to prevent exposure to UV light until it is desired to reprogram the chip. ISO A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition. See: anomaly, bug, defect, exception, fault.

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Techniques used to identify errors in data transfers. See: check summation, cyclic redundancy check [CRC], parity check, longitudinal redundancy. NBS Test data selection technique. The selection criterion is to pick values that seem likely to cause errors. See: special test data; testing, special case. IEEE The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program.

Contrast with mutation analysis. A table which lists events and the corresponding specified effect[s] of or reaction[s] to each event. IEEE An event that causes suspension of normal program execution. Types include addressing exception, data exception, operation exception, overflow exception, protection exception, underflow exception.

IEEE A record of the sequence of instructions executed during the execution of a computer program. Often takes the form of a list of code labels encountered as the program executes.

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Syn: code trace, control flow trace. See: retrospective trace, subroutine trace, symbolic trace, variable trace. IEEE An event that causes suspension of normal program operation. See: anomaly, bug, defect, error, fault.

IEEE Standard Glossary of Computer Hardware Terminology (Ieee Std 610. ...

An eight bit code used to represent specific data characters in some computers; e. NBS Test data that is at the extreme or boundary of the domain of an input variable or which produces results at the boundary of an output domain. IEEE A system or component that automatically places itself in a safe operational mode in the event of a failure. IEEE The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements. See: bug, crash, exception, fault. Determining the exact nature and location of a program error in order to fix the error, to identify and fix other similar errors, and to initiate corrective action to prevent future occurrences of this type of error.

Contrast with debugging. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. IEC A method of reliability analysis intended to identify failures, at the basic component level, which have significant consequences affecting the system performance in the application considered. Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis. An incorrect step, process, or data definition in a computer program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. See: anomaly, bug, defect, error, exception.

Fault Tree Analysis. IEC The identification and analysis of conditions and factors which cause or contribute to the occurrence of a defined undesirable event, usually one which significantly affects system performance, economy, safety or other required characteristics. Analysis of the known or anticipated need for a product, system, or component to assess the degree to which the requirements, designs, or plans can be implemented.

Federal Information Processing Standards. Standards published by U. These standards are intended to be binding only upon federal agencies. Communications systems that use optical fibers for transmission. See: optical fiber. A field is a component of a record.

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A record is a component of a database. Syn: data set. ANSI The activity of keeping a file up to date by adding, changing, or deleting data. See: Kermit, Xmodem, Ymodem, Zmodem.

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Terms pertaining to computer hardware are defined. Terms falling under the categories of computer architecture, computer storage, general hardware concepts. Withdrawn Terms pertaining to computer hardware are defined. Terms falling under the categories of computer architecture, computer storage, general.

IEEE The combination of a hardware device; e. Such software cannot be modified by the computer during processing. See: embedded software.

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IEEE A variable that is set to a prescribed state, often "true" or "false", based on the results of a process or the occurrence of a specified condition. Syn: indicator. A data file that does not physically interconnect with or point to other files.

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Any relationship between two flat files is logical; e. Syn: flow diagram. See: block diagram, box diagram, bubble chart, graph, input-process-output chart, structure chart. IEEE The test, inspection, or analytical process by which a group of configuration items comprising a system is verified to have met specific contractual performance requirements. Contrast with code review, design review, requirements review, test readiness review. Intended primarily for use in solving technical problems in mathematics, engineering, and science.

IEEE Verifies that each safety-critical software requirement is covered and that an appropriate criticality level is assigned to each software element.

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IEEE An audit conducted to verify that the development of a configuration item has been completed satisfactorily, that the item has achieved the performance and functional characteristics specified in the functional or allocated configuration identification, and that its operational and support documents are complete and satisfactory. See: physical configuration audit. IEEE 1 The process of defining the working relationships among the components of a system. See: architectural design. IEEE A requirement that specifies a function that a system or system component must be able to perform.

Approximately one billion bytes; precisely or 1,,, bytes. See: kilobyte, megabyte. IEEE A diagram or other representation consisting of a finite set of nodes and internode connections called edges or arcs. Contrast with blueprint.

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Also referred to as a "nickname". IV: Abbreviation for Interactive Video. FireWire devices are hot pluggable, which means they can be connected and disconnected any time, even with the power on. Users running dial-up connections on Windows computers must have Dial-Up Adapter installed and properly configured. See, for example, Berer M.