This interview is going to be much different than her last one.
She is no longer a victim in the eyes of the police; rather, she's their lead suspect. Faced with a new interrogator, Det. Bill Goetz, Jennifer is about to be confronted by a dramatic shift in interview style. Story continues below. Goetz — or "Gator" as he's known around the force — is cold and calculating from the get-go. He clearly means business and is in no mood for Jennifer's manipulative tendencies.
A burly and imposing figure with grey hair in a military-style crewcut, he strikes an unsympathetic figure, playing both good cop and bad cop with Jennifer, a role with which he seems entirely at ease. His interview will contain a series of outright lies as part of the Reid Technique. Jennifer's responses are muffled by sobbing each time her mother is mentioned, but rather than console her, Goetz nonchalantly but sternly tells her to speak up.
Goetz is not only an expert at detecting deception, he says, but is also well versed at coaxing information from those who otherwise try to deceive the police. In Jennifer's case, he spends the next two hours gaining her trust. Once that stage is complete, he turns the tables, using the goodwill and familiarity he's built with her to secure a confession. After his initial bluntness, Goetz changes tack.
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He eases back in his chair, dropping the cop-speak and focusing his attention solely on Jennifer, prompting her bleak outlook to appear rosier. The Reid Technique requires officers to "reinforce sincerity" to ensure the suspect is receptive to their overtures.
Hence, Goetz shares with Jennifer his own experiences. When he reminisces about his time playing piano, he inaccurately refers to the ballet Swan Lake as "Swans on the Lake," prompting a smile from Jennifer. He then asks her if she switched jobs from East Side Mario's to Boston Pizza for "better tips," again drawing a smile from Jennifer, who seems to somewhat enjoy the attention being lavished on her. The conversation focuses not only on her achievements but her struggles, as if she's reminiscing with someone who really understands what she's been through.
The "scheduled" existence she claims to have suffered through as a child and teenager takes centre stage. Jennifer remarks how little time there was for anything other than school, competitive skating and piano lessons. Her parents constantly comparing her to her classmates, teammates, and cousins also affected her negatively, she says. And when Goetz suggests that Jennifer never thought of herself as being "as smart" as Hann and Bich imagined, Jennifer agrees.
At one point she tells the detective that she was under so much pressure during her teenage years that she was compelled to forge high school report cards to mask her average grades, turning them into exceptional ones. Her lies multiplied from there, she confesses, morphing into a bogus university career after her applications to higher learning were rejected.
It was more than just her schooling that she'd end up lying about, though. Jennifer tells Goetz she dated Daniel without their knowledge or consent for seven years. Eventually, though, the option to run back to Daniel was wrenched from her grasp. Her parents offered Jennifer an ultimatum after she was caught lying one final time: stay with the family or go with Daniel and never return.
Jennifer chose her family and was subsequently kept at home, rarely let out of her parents' sights, she contends. This is when Daniel decided to move on with another woman Jennifer explains how depression eventually led to cutting, and then finally a failed suicide attempt.
As for how she felt having to remain home under strict guidelines for some 18 months after she was given the ultimatum, Jennifer says it was difficult. In response, Goetz empathizes with Jennifer, at one point even giggling at her deceit. Justifying her behaviour, he even labels Hann and Bich's treatment of their daughter "abuse," suggesting their expectations were just too high. Those are pretty high standards for anybody … Not everybody can be a doctor, but they may have acted like you could have done it no problem.
But his empathy doesn't last. Now that he's gained the personal knowledge required to implement his technique, the conversation slowly shifts back to her behaviour in the lead-up to and the night of the murder. Goetz asks Jennifer if she told a family member that the intruders "liked her" and that's why they kept her alive.
Keep co-operating. He's more of a friend of mine's roommate," Jennifer contends. These two admissions signal an interlude as Goetz shifts his tactics anew, heaping further pressure on Jennifer. Suddenly, he sheds his friendly and engaging demeanour and begins to sow strife between them. Step One of the Reid Technique: direct confrontation. Does that make … sense, for killers? You must think about this. To Jennifer's dismay, Goetz then recounts the sequence of events once more. When Goetz gets up and leaves to get some water, Jennifer curls back up into the fetal position, gripping her head tightly.
As silence fills the room, she begins to make noises that sound like squeals. Valerie Plame, a former CIA agent, worked undercover for two decades. In her cover was blown and her clandestine career ended when Bush Administration officials leaked her name to a newspaper columnist. She and her husband say it was done in retribution for his claim that the White House had exaggerated intelligence to justify the invasion of Iraq. What lesson did she take away from her years as a spy? The inside of the car, though neat, had a strong odor of sweaty socks, and the driver, though courteous, had trouble finding her way.
When we finally got there, she asked me smilingly if I would give her a five-star rating. Later, I gave her three stars. I assuaged my guilt by telling myself that it was better not to mislead thousands of Uber riders. Ariely became fascinated with dishonesty about 15 years ago. Looking through a magazine on a long-distance flight, he came across a mental aptitude test.
He answered the first question and flipped to the key in the back to see if he got it right.
He found himself taking a quick glance at the answer to the next question. Continuing in this vein through the entire test, Ariely, not surprisingly, scored very well. In experiments he and his colleagues have run on college campuses and elsewhere, volunteers are given a test with 20 simple math problems. They must solve as many as they can in five minutes and are paid based on how many they get right.
They are told to drop the sheet into a shredder before reporting the number they solved correctly. A lot of volunteers lie, as it turns out. On average, volunteers report having solved six matrices, when it was really more like four.
The results are similar across different cultures. Most of us lie, but only a little. The reason, according to him, is that we want to see ourselves as honest, because we have, to some degree, internalized honesty as a value taught to us by society. Which is why, unless one is a sociopath, most of us place limits on how much we are willing to lie.
How far most of us are willing to go—Ariely and others have shown—is determined by social norms arrived at through unspoken consensus, like the tacit acceptability of taking a few pencils home from the office supply cabinet. Apollo Robbins and Ava Do, who are married and business partners, use sleight of hand to entertain and educate.
Robbins is an astonishingly agile pickpocket, perhaps best known for emptying the pockets of some Secret Service agents on a presidential detail. Do is a magician who has studied psychobiology. By his account, he had been awarded a Purple Heart in Vietnam. None of it was true.
There appears to be no agreement among psychiatrists about the relationship between mental health and lying, even though people with certain psychiatric disorders seem to exhibit specific lying behaviors. Sociopathic individuals—those diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder—tend to tell manipulative lies, while narcissists may tell falsehoods to boost their image. But is there anything unique about the brains of individuals who lie more than others?
In psychologist Yaling Yang and her colleagues compared the brain scans of three groups: 12 adults with a history of repeated lying, 16 who met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder but were not frequent liars, and 21 who were neither antisocial nor had a lying habit. The researchers found that the liars had at least 20 percent more neural fibers by volume in their prefrontal cortices, suggesting that habitual liars have greater connectivity within their brains. The Canadian-born superstar, who moved to Las Vegas 20 years ago, has traveled the world as an ambassador of the game and appeared on countless televised shows.
Psychologists Nobuhito Abe at Kyoto University and Joshua Greene at Harvard University scanned the brains of subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and found that those who acted dishonestly showed greater activation in the nucleus accumbens—a structure in the basal forebrain that plays a key role in reward processing. One lie can lead to another and another, as evidenced by the smooth, remorseless lying of serial con men such as Hogue.
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An experiment by Tali Sharot, a neuroscientist at University College London, and colleagues showed how the brain becomes inured to the stress or emotional discomfort that happens when we lie, making it easier to tell the next fib. In the fMRI scans of the participants, the team focused on the amygdala, a region that is involved in processing emotions.
Much of the knowledge we use to navigate the world comes from what others have told us. Without the implicit trust that we place in human communication, we would be paralyzed as individuals and cease to have social relationships. Being hardwired to be trusting makes us intrinsically gullible. Researchers have shown that we are especially prone to accepting lies that affirm our worldview. Memes that claim Obama was not born in the United States, deny climate change, accuse the U.
Debunking them does not demolish their power, because people assess the evidence presented to them through a framework of preexisting beliefs and prejudices, says George Lakoff, a cognitive linguist at the University of California, Berkeley.