Advances in Nutrition and Cancer 2

Nutrition Research
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The inaugural issue of Advances in Nutrition explores some of the most important developments, trends, and practices in nutrition. I encourage you to peruse the complete issue, including such insightful reviews as:.

Nutrition Research

Home Posts tagged "Advances in Nutrition" September 24, Posts tagged "Advances in Nutrition". Read more With the high burden of cancer worldwide, primary prevention has been identified as a key cancer control strategy to reduce this burden. Diet and nutrition are important modifiable factors that may alter the risk of developing cancer, because several dietary components including alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, and dietary fiber have been shown to significantly impact cancer risk.

Consequently, a number of organizations have developed cancer prevention guidelines that highlight the importance of nutrition and related factors including body size and physical activity to reduce the risk of cancer. The importance of achieving a proper nutrient balance is seen in the example of chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation contributes to many noncommunicable diseases and can result from high intakes of proinflammatory omega-6 fatty acids in the face of low intakes of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids 5. Research will help to determine the desired intake for essential and nonessential nutrients alone and when combined with other nutrients in the diet.

Advances in Nutrition and Cancer Cancer Treatment and Research

Nutrition research is needed to establish the required nutritional needs that best support survival, growth, and development in subpopulations, such as in chronically diseased patients, in children, and in aging adults. With the success of medical advances, as have been seen with in vitro fertilization and neonatal care, caring for preterm infants presents a new challenge in early nutritional management.

Preterm infants have special nutrition needs that will greatly affect their future growth and development, as well as their eventual health status as adults.

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Understanding the link between behavior and food choices can help tackle obesity and other nutrition-related issues that are a public health priority. Individual food choices can be influenced by a number of different drivers including the following:. Research is needed to identify the impact of these various drivers and understand how they work alone or together to influence nutrition-related behavior.

Research will show how these drivers should be altered to have the highest positive influence on individual behavior and therefore public health. Multiple changes in the environment occurred, such as the setting of standards for foods sold in school vending machines, setting a requirement for more school exercise time, mandating healthier environments in childcare settings, and establishing programs that encouraged fruit and vegetable consumption.

Advances in Nutrition

The challenge now is to determine what effect these combined actions will have on obesity-related behaviors in the long run. Further explorations of the biochemical and behavioral bases for food choices and intake over time are essential. Brain function as it relates to food desire and choice needs to be clarified through research, and the multiple hormones that affect eating require further study as well. Factors such as meal frequency and size, speed of meal consumption, and how these factors are influenced by social cues require objective data, which can only be provided by research.

Understanding how the marketing of healthy behaviors could help consumers achieve dietary guidance goals should be a priority. As part of this approach, innovative and practical methods for accurately measuring and evaluating food purchases and eating occasions must be developed. Because of the high propensity of obese children remaining obese as adults 7 , additional research is needed to determine how eating and satiety behaviors are imprinted during critical periods of development and to show how food components affect neural biochemistry and brain functioning—and therefore shape behavior.

This research will provide us with a better understanding of how and why an individual makes particular food choices.

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Although scientists recently validated the concept that food availability during pregnancy has permanent effects on gene expression in children 8 , human studies are needed to confirm or refute the hypothesis that fetal programming, resulting from maternal obesity, leads to excess weight in children and into adulthood. Examples of key questions that should be addressed include the following:. Examples of key research areas to address include the following:. To tackle these enormous challenges requires the coordinated efforts of public and private partners. Nutrition research is truly a cross-cutting discipline, and the Working Group identified several tools that are also necessary to advance the priority needs in nutrition research.

Adequately powered intervention trials continue to be essential for validating research theories arising from experimental and epidemiologic studies. However, the development of new, impactful tools will help us to more effectively quantify dietary intake and food waste and to determine the effectiveness of nutrition standards, such as DRI values and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

Advances in Nutrition and Cancer 2

Although not a traditional tool, multidisciplinary partnerships among scientific societies, government, industry, academia, and others are fundamental to advance the nutrition research agenda. ASN and its membership must be proactive not only in efforts to advance nutrition research including initiating and leading partnerships but also in developing the tools needed to enhance the field. ASN recognizes the need to facilitate effective communication among academia, industry, government agencies, consumers, and other stakeholders to advance nutrition.

Omics especially genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will enable us to determine how specific nutrients interact with genes, proteins, and metabolites to predict the future health of an individual.

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A field of study that encompasses technological advances as well as omics-based research, it is sometimes referred to as personalized nutrition. Omics hold the keys to major nutrition breakthroughs in noncommunicable disease and obesity prevention. Omics provide information on how well nutrients are digested, absorbed, metabolized, and used by an individual.

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that uses computer science and information technology to develop and enhance techniques to make it easier to acquire, store, organize, retrieve, and use biological data. Bioinformatics will enable nutrition researchers to manage, analyze, and understand nutrition data and to make connections between diet and health that were not previously possible.

Databases are necessary to gain the full benefits of bioinformatics, because they make nutrition data easily accessible in a machine-readable format. Accurate, up-to-date food and nutrient databases are essential to track and observe trends related to the nutrition and health of individuals.

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However, the balance of beneficial and potentially pathogenic bacteria in the gut is dependent on the diet. Skip to main content. See Adv Nutr. Evolving research areas include prevention of disease-related processes, such as inflammation, and definition of mechanisms that have an important role in health maintenance, such as immunocompetence. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition ASN convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. Communications are limited in length and preliminary data that addresses a potential mechanism is acceptable.

Databases link food and supplement composition and intake data to health outcomes. Nutrient databases should be expanded to cover more foods and their bioactive components, including nonessential nutrients. Nutrition data must be incorporated into databases related to novel research areas, such as nutrigenomics and the microbiome, to adequately link these areas with nutrition.

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This volume includes contributions presented at the Second International Sym posium on Nutrition and Cancer, held in Naples, Italy, in October at the. This highly multidisciplinary meeting analyzed “nutrition and cancer” from different from the Third International Conference on Advances in Nutrition and Cancer, . Download Preface 1 PDF ( KB); Download Sample pages 2 PDF (

Data collection must also be improved with enhancements such as photographic food intake documentation, direct upload of food composition and sensory characteristics if not proprietary from food manufacturers, and biological sample collection. Intake, effect, and exposure biomarkers allow us to determine and monitor the health and nutritional status of individuals and subpopulations, including ethnic and racial minorities.

Biomarkers that are responsive to diet and nutrition will help assess disease progression and variability in response to treatment, while improving early diagnosis and prevention. Biomarkers must continue to be developed and validated to accurately track food and nutrient intake given our rapidly changing food supply. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a tool used to calculate and compare the relative costs and benefits of nutrition research interventions.

Cost effectiveness analysis helps to determine the most cost-effective option that will have the greatest benefit to public health. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires collaboration among research scientists with differing areas of expertise, many different stakeholders, and multifaceted approaches to develop the knowledge base required for establishing the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health and well-being of world populations.

Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of chronic and noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors, including obesity. Both of these studies showed significant reductions in cardiovascular disease and cancer in the Lyon study after relatively modest dietary changes. Perhaps the greatest barrier to advancing the connections between food and health is the variability in individual responses to diet; it is also the origin of public skepticism to acceptance of dietary advice and the opportunity for entrepreneurship in the private sector.

Imagine being able to identify, with certainty, those most likely to benefit from prescriptive nutrition advice through the various omic technologies and then providing these groups of people with customized nutrition advice based on their metabolic risk profiles. This is the new frontier of the nutritional sciences that offers the opportunity to predictably engineer our physiologic networks for health through diet. The confidence this approach would bring to the skeptical consumer would improve adherence to weight management and disease treatment techniques and improve the chances of success for disease prevention.

To realize the full positive impact of achieving good nutrition on disease prevention and the health of populations, we must have the will to invest in and support the 6 key areas of nutrition research that have been outlined above.

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